Nassim Taleb introduced Black Swans to describe events that are unexpected, unpredictable, and characterized by extreme consequences. Examples of such events are World War I and the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Since the work of Taleb, the media tend to abuse the term. During the Covid19 pandemic, many public institutions and journals referred to the virus as a Black Swan. However, the pandemic was not an unexpected event because many antecedent studies pointed out this possibility. This abuse of terminology mirrors the absence of a scientific theory of Black Swans, which is often discussed only from a qualitative point of view.

In a paper published in  Physical Review Research, researchers  G. De Marzo(1,4,5), A. Gabrielli(1,2,3), A. Zaccaria(2,1), and L. Pietronero (1,2,4) addressed the challenging task of developing a scientifically grounded and quantitative approach to Black Swans.
Since the introduction of Bitcoin in 2009, cryptocurrencies have known an increasing growth in terms of different digital coins and their market capitalization. However, despite their profound impact on our society,  the mechanisms underlining their success are not yet fully understood.

In this paper, researchers  Giordano De Marzo(1,2,3,4,), Vito DP Servedio(4), and Francesco Pandolfelli(2), tackle this problem by analyzing the evolution of the cryptocurrency ecosystem from 2013 to the present day.
In che modo le persone discutono su Twitter? È possibile rintracciare delle costanti nel modo di interagire degli utenti? Possiamo capire come si diffondono le informazioni?

In questo articolo, pubblicato su Nature, un gruppo di ricerca di CREF, CNR,  Scuola IMT Alti Studi Lucca, Università di Venezia e Universitat Rovira i Virgili di Terragona, ha preso in esame le modalità di comunicazione su Twitter, cercando di rintracciare pattern ricorrenti nel modo in cui gli utenti interagiscono online.